Diabetes is diagnosed when an individual has excess glucose (sugar) in their blood. This is usually as a consequence of the body either having inadequate amounts of insulin or having the insulin but resisting its effects.
Also abbreviated T1D, diabetes (type 1) is a long-term variation of diabetes disease which classically takes hold either during one’s childhood or adolescence. It is an outcome of the immune system destroying the pancreas-the organ where insulin is produced.
Type 1 diabetes symptoms can occur quite abruptly. This condition can result in severe health conditions over time although it is possible to efficiently and successfully manage it by changing your usual lifestyle and undergoing an insulin replacement therapy.
As such, it is vital that T1D is diagnosed early to allow administration of treatment at the soonest possible time.
Usually, testing for this disease is done on persons already exhibiting typical diabetes symptoms. Physicians commonly diagnose it in kids as well as young adults. And because T1D is known to run in the family line, individuals are encouraged to try out a distinct study known as TrailNet.
This study provides testing, free of charge to add, to the members of the family of a positively diagnosed patient, notwithstanding whether they have shown any symptoms.
If you suspect you have diabetes or you are otherwise experiencing any diabetes-related symptoms, be sure to consult with your physician at the soonest possible time.
They will usually ask you about the symptoms you are experiencing and may even request for urine and blood tests. The doctor tests this urine sample for the presence of glucose.
Although urine does not usually have glucose present in it, people with diabetes can have small (or large) amounts of glucose in their urine since it can pass from the kidneys down to the urine.
Type 1 Diabetes Tests For Diagnosis
In most cases, health practitioners either use the A1C test or the �fasting plasma glucose’ test to diagnose the ailment. In some instances, they may decide to use the RPG test (Random Plasma Glucose).
This particular test measures your level of blood glucose at a precise time. To get the most accurate results, the recommended time to take this test is early morning, preferably after a fast of about 8 hours.
This means you have consumed nothing whether food or water –although small water sips are acceptable.
This distinct test is a typical blood test but which outlines your average blood glucose levels over the last three months. The A1C test is also known as the HbA1C, glycosylated hemoglobin test, hemoglobin A1C, or the glycated hemoglobin.
Unlike the FPG test, this test does not restrain you from drinking or eating before the test. With this test, your physician will usually consider several critical factors before diagnosis. They include age as well as whether you are suffering from anemia or any other blood-related problem/disease.
One interesting thing about this test is that when it comes to anemia patients, the test is never any accurate. Furthermore, if your descent is Southeast Asian, African, or Mediterranean, the outcome of your A1C test may at the time indicate a false low or high. At such time, your physician may be forced to order another form of this test.
The results come in the form of a percentage for instance 10%. The delineation is simple: a higher percentage represents higher levels of blood glucose.
Diabetes patients also utilize information from this test in helping them better manage their condition.
In some cases, your physician may need to diagnose diabetes as soon as the symptoms have manifested notwithstanding whether or not you have fasted. They use the RPG test.
With this test, there is no need of fasting overnight. As such, your physician can do it at any moment or time of the day.
Similar to the FPG test above, this diabetes diagnosis test also needs you to fast (for a minimum of 8 hours). Initially, your physician will take a sample of your blood. Afterward, he/she will give you a drink containing glucose.
To diagnose diabetes, your physician will then conduct periodic blood tests to monitor your blood glucose levels within several hours. The test periods can range between an hour and two. If your results indicate high levels of blood sugar at more than one test time during the process, then this confirms that you have diabetes.
Nevertheless, your physician will further expound on the results and the way forward.
Aside from diagnosing T1D, this test can also find use in diagnosing gestation diabetes (diabetes usually observed in pregnant women), prediabetes and diabetes type 2. It is a more accurate alternative to the initially mentioned FPG test.
Nonetheless, this test is relatively costlier and compared to FPG; it is somewhat difficult to administer.
Every diabetes diagnosis test has its distinct measurement. The A1C test, for instance, uses percentages to indicate the state of the patient while the OGTT and RPG tests use milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL).
For accuracy, the physicians usually take the same diabetes test method more than once (generally on another day after the initial test). This is done to confirm the diagnosis.
Although each of the tests mentioned above can well confirm whether or not you have diabetes, they can unfortunately not pinpoint the precise type of diabetes it is. In many cases, physicians are uncertain as to whether the diabetes is type 2 or type 1.
Surprisingly, a different kind of diabetes, although quite rare, known as monogenic diabetes, and which commonly affects babies, can also be passed for the typical type 1.
The resulting treatment is dependent on the precise type of this ailment you have, and as such, there is a necessity to identify exactly which diabetes type you have.
After diagnosis, most doctors usually order a test known as the Autoantibody test. This test is often to identify the antibodies which attack the beta cells in the pancreas. Autoantibodies simply represent antibodies which mistakenly attack healthy cells and tissues in your body.
With type 1, the test will usually indicate a particular group of autoantibodies only specific to diabetes type 1 and not any other kind including monogenic and type 2. This test therefore efficiently helps in differentiating between type 2 and type 1 diabetes.
For this test, your physician will request for a blood sample.